Autret 2020

Long-term modelling of crop yield, nitrogen losses and GHG balance in organic cropping systems

Autret, B., Mary, B., Strullu, L., Chlebowski, F., Mader, P., Mayer, J., Olesen, J. E., Beaudoin, N., 2020, Science of the Total Environment

Although organic cropping systems are promoted for their environmental benefits, little is known about their long-term impact on nitrogen (N) fate in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. In this paper, we analyze two long-term experiments: DOK in Switzerland (39-yr) and Foulum organic in Denmark (19-yr). Four treatments were considered in each experiment: two conventional treatments with (CONFYM) or without manure (CONMIN), organic with manure (BIOORG) and unfertilized treatment (NOFERT) at DOK; conventional (CGL-CC+IF) and three organic treatments, one with cover crops only (OGL+CC-M) and two including cover crops and grass-clover with (OGC+CC+M) or without manure (OGC+CC-M), at Foulum. STICS model was used to simulate crop production, N surplus, nitrate leaching, gaseous N losses and changes in soil organic N. It was calibrated in the conventional treatments and tested in organic systems. The crop production, N surplus and soil organic N stocks were satisfactorily predicted. The mean N surplus greatly differed between treatments at DOK, from -58 (NOFERT) to +21 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (CONFYM), but only from -9 (OGL+CC-M) to +21 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (OGC+CC+M) in Foulum. Soil N pools declined continuously in both sites and treatments at a rate varying from -18 to -78 kg N ha-1 yr-1, depending on fertilization and crop rotation. The decline was consistent with the observed N surpluses. Although not all simulations could be tested against field observations and despite of prediction uncertainties, simulations confirm the hypothesis that environmental performances resulting from C and N cycles depend more on specificities of individual than nominal treatments. Significant correlations appeared between long-term N surplus and soil N storage and between total N fertilization and total N gaseous losses. Results showed in both experiments that arable organic systems do not systematically have lower N surplus and N losses than conventional ones, providing opportunity for increasing N use efficiency of these systems.

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Date de modification : 23 août 2023 | Date de création : 10 août 2021 | Rédaction : Equipe Projet Stics